Laboratory tests conducted at the University of Southampton, UK, found that many species of bacteria including hospital superbugs, MRSA and VRE, are killed in less than 2 h on copper alloy surfaces. Tests conducted in a third-party lab subject to EPA audits confirmed these results, concluding that a range of copper alloy surfaces, such as brass, bronze, copper nickel, and nickel silver, achieve a 99.9% reduction of bacteria within 2 h of contact and that the effect is not impaired by tarnish. Other such tests have since been conducted and the results are presented in the article.

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