Advanced 700C class steam turbines require austenitic alloys instead of conventional ferritic heat-resistant steels which have poor creep strength and oxidation resistance above 650C. Austenitic alloys, however, possess a higher thermal expansion coefficient than ferritic 12Cr steels. Therefore, Ni-based superalloys were tailored to reduce their coefficients to the level of 12Cr steels. Regression analysis of commercial superalloys proves that Ti, Mo and Al decrease the coefficient quantitatively in this order, while Cr, used to secure oxidation resistance, increases it so significantly that Cr should be limited to 12wt%. The newly designed Ni-18Mo-12Cr-l.lTi-0.9Al alloy is strengthened by gamma-prime [Ni3(Al,Ti)] and also Laves [Ni2(Mo,Cr)] phase precipitates. It bears an RT/700C mean thermal expansion coefficient equivalent to that of 12Cr steels and far lower than that of low-alloyed heat resistant steels. Its creep rupture life at 700C and steam oxidation resistance are equivalent to those of a current turbine alloy, Refractaloy 26, and its tensile strength at RT to 700C surpasses that of Refractaloy 26. The new alloy was trial produced using the VIM-ESR melting process and one ton ingots were successfully forged into round bars for bolts without any defects. The bolts were tested in an actual steam turbine for one year. Dye penetrant tests detected no damage. The developed alloy will be suitable for 700C class USC power plants.

This content is only available as a PDF.