Power generation technology selection is driven by factors such as cost, fuel supply security, and environmental impact. Coal remains a popular choice due to its global availability, but efficient, reliable, and cost-effective methods are essential. In Europe, efforts focus on advancing coal-fired steam power plants to ultrasupercritical conditions, with boilers and turbines now operating at up to 600°C. This has improved efficiency and maintained reliability comparable to subcritical plants. Orders are in detailed planning for plants exceeding 600°C, thanks to improved high-temperature steels for components like turbine rotors, casings, steam pipes, and boiler tubes, which undergo rigorous development and testing. Further efficiency gains are expected by increasing steam temperatures to over 700°C using nickel-based alloys. Test facilities are being built for pilot components, leading to a full demonstration plant. This systematic approach to materials development and proven design principles ensures operational reliability.

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