This study examines the influence of carbon and austenite stabilizing elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Cu) on Laves phase precipitation, Fe2W formation, and creep rupture strength (CRS) in 9-12% Cr steels at 600-700°C. Nickel and manganese had minimal impact on Laves phase and coarse carbide formation up to 1% content. While cobalt increased Laves phase fraction at 650°C, it did not improve long-term CRS and even caused a rapid decrease in short-term CRS. Copper, on the other hand, promoted the precipitation of fine Cu-rich particles that acted as nucleation sites for Laves phase and M23C6 carbide. This resulted in a different needle-like Laves phase morphology compared to the globular type observed in nickel and cobalt alloys, leading to improved CRS in the copper alloy. Increasing carbon content from 0.1% to 0.2% effectively suppressed Laves phase formation, as confirmed by Thermo-Calc calculations. Notably, for cobalt alloys with higher tungsten content, higher carbon content (0.09% to 0.19%) improved CRS at 650°C, whereas the opposite effect was observed in nickel and nickel-manganese alloys. Copper alloys maintained improving CRS trends even with increased carbon, leading to the overall best CRS performance among the tested alloys with 0.2% carbon.

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