This study explores methods to enhance the creep strength of 12%Cr martensitic/ferritic steels. The approach focuses on utilizing various precipitates to hinder microstructure coarsening and dislocation movement. A combination of Laves phase (slow precipitation) and MX carbonitrides (dislocation pinning) is used for sustained strengthening. Different MX-forming elements (V, Ta, Ti) are investigated to identify the optimal combination for high quantities of finely distributed strengthening particles. Additionally, cobalt and copper are employed to promote a fully martensitic microstructure and potentially slow down diffusion or provide nucleation sites for Laves phase precipitation. Long-term creep tests confirm the effectiveness of Laves phase precipitation, particularly with tungsten present. Tantalum's influence on both MX precipitation and the Laves phase is also observed. Combining multiple MX-forming elements (V/Ta, V/Ti, Ta/Ti) further improves creep strength, supported by predictions of high MX carbonitride formation from Thermo-Calc calculations. Partially replacing cobalt with copper (1%) also demonstrates positive effects on creep properties.

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